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  • Writer's pictureCourtney Hutson

Musculoskeletal Disorders

Updated: Feb 25, 2022


  • Bone Spur - Bony projections that develop along the edges of bones, Form where bones meet each other in joints, also form on the bones of your spine - also called Osteophytes

  • Claw Foot - Medial longitudinal arch is abnormally elevated - also called Pes Carus

  • Cleft Palate/Lip - Incomplete fusion of horizontal plates of the palatine/ split in upper lip

  • Genu Valgum - Knees angle in and touch one another when the legs are straightened - also called Knock Knees

  • Genu Varum - Outward bowing at the knee, lower leg is angled inward in relation to the thigh's axis - also called Bow Leg

  • Hallux Valgus - Deformity of the great toe where the tow is deviated medially away from the first metatarsal bone

  • Legg-Calve Perthes Disease - Disruption of blood flow to the ball of the femur, due to the lack of blood flow, the bone dies

  • Osteoporosis - Bones becomes weak and brittle

  • Kyphosis - Abnormal convex curve of the thoracic spine, forward rounding of the back - also called Hunchback

  • Lordosis - Abnormal concave curve of the lumbar spine, curving inward of the lower back - also called Swayback

  • Scoliosis - Lateral curvature of the spine that involves rotation of the vertebrae

  • Osteogenesis Imperfecta - Group of inherited disorders characterized by fragile bones that break easily - also called Brittle Bone Disease

  • Osteomyelitis - Inflammation of bone by infection, generally in the legs, arms or spine

  • Osteopenia - The body doesn't make new bone as quickly as it reabsorbs old bone

  • Patellofemoral Stress Syndrome - Patella tracks laterally as well as superiorly and inferiorly, increased pressure on the joint or deep to the patella - also called Runner's Knee

  • Rickets - Softening or weakening of bones, usually due to inadequate vitamin D -also called Osteomalacia

  • Tilpes Equinovarus - Foot twisted out of shape or position and arch increased - also called Club Foot


  • Spasms, Cramps - Involuntary contractions of a muscle, typically harmless and temporary, but can be painful

  • Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness - Pain and stiffness felt in muscles several hours to days after unaccustomed or strenuous exercise - also called DOMS or Muscle Fever

  • Hypertonicity - Increased tension of muscles

  • Muscular Dystrophy - A group of genetic disease that cause progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass also called MD

  • Myasthenia Gravis - A weakness and rapid fatigue of muscles under voluntary control - also called MG

  • Shin Splints - Result when muscles, tendons, and bone tissue become overworked

  • Spasmodic Torticollis - Muscles of the neck contract uncontrollably, making the head turn into various postures - also called Cervical Dystonia

Tendons & Joints

  • Ganglion Cysts - Noncancerous lump, often on the tendons or joints of wrists and hands - also called Bible Cyst

  • Bursitis - Inflammation of the small fluid-filled sacs located near the joints that reduce the friction of overlying structures during movement

  • Tenosynovitis - Inflammation of the tendon sheath where muscle connects to bone

  • Adhesive Capsulitis - Extreme stiffness or immobility in the shoulder joint, usually following injury and caused by adhesions in the joint and inflammation of the capsule of the humerus - also called Frozen Shoulder

  • Ankylosing Spondylitis - Inflammatory disease that affects joints between vertebrae and between the sacrum and hip bone

  • Osteoarthritis - Affects synovial joints (flexible tissue) that have experienced much wear and tear or trauma - also called OA or Degenerative Joint Disease

  • Spondylitis - Inflammation of the joints of the backbone - also known as Bechterew's Disease

  • Contracture - Shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, or other tissues, often leading to deformity and rigidity of joints

  • Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction - Pain and compromised movement of the jaw joint and the surrounding muscles


  • Flat Foot - Ligaments and tendons are weakened, the height of the medial longitudinal arch may decrease or "fall" - also called Fallen Arches or Pes Olanus

Soft Tissue

  • Plantar Fasciitis - Inflammation of a thick band of tissue that connects the heel bone to the toes - also called Policeman's Heel

  • Tendonitis - Tissue connecting muscle to bone becomes inflamed - also called Teninitis

  • Fibromyalgia - Pain, fatigue and stiffness in connective tissue of muscles, tendons or ligaments - also called Fibrositis

  • Fibrosis - Thickening and scarring of connective tissue, usually result of injury

  • Lateral Epicondylitis - An irritation of the tissues connecting the forearm muscles to the elbow, extensors of the wrist involved - also called Tennis Elbow

  • Medial Epicondylitis - An irritation of the tissues on the inner side of the elbow, flexors of the wrist are involved - also called Golfer's Elbow

  • Myofascial Pain Syndrome - Pain and presumed inflammation in the body's soft tissues or muscles - also called MPS

  • Myositis Ossifications - Formation of bone tissue inside muscle tissue after injury to the area, results of an acute deep-muscle bruise or repeated muscular trauma to the same spot

  • Rotator Cuff Tear - A tear in the tissues connecting muscle to the bone (tendon) around the shoulder joint


Fascial Disorders

  • Hammertoe

  • Foot Drop - Gait abnormally, due to weakness, irritation or damage to the common fibular nerve

  • Pes Planus; Pes Cavus

Compartment Syndrome

  • Acute Compartment Syndrome

  • Chronic Compartment Syndrome

Dupuytren Contracture

  • Plantar Fibromatosis

  • Peyronie Disease

  • Garrod Nodes


  • Direct Inguinal Hernia

  • Indirect Inguinal Hernia

  • Epigastric Hernia

  • Paraumbilical Hernia

  • Umbilical Hernia

  • Incisional Hernia

  • Hiatal Hernia


Neuromuscular Disorders

Disc Disease

  • Herniation - Invertebral disc that has protruded out and into the spinal cavity, causing pain and increased pressure on the spinal cord, caused radiating pressure on nerve endings, occurs normally in the lumbar region of the spine

  • Herniated Disc - Weakening of the intervertebral disc resulting in a protrusion into the vertebral canal, potentially compressing the spinal cord - also called Spinal Disc Herniation

  • Bulge

  • Protrusion

  • Extrusion

  • Rupture

  • Degenerative Disc Disease

  • Internal Disc Disease


Other Connective Tissue Disorders

  • Bunions

  • Whiplash - Rapid excessive forces on the structures of the neck

Shin Splints

  • Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome

  • Peridotites

  • Stress Fractures


  • Tendinosis


Muscle Disorders

  • Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

  • Becker Muscular Dystrophy

  • Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

  • Facioscapulohumer

  • Limb-Girdle

  • Emery-Dreifuess

  • Oculopharyngeal


Bone Disorders

  • Osgood-Schlatter Disease- Repetitive use injury that causes a painful lump below the kneecap

  • Hyperlordosis

  • Spondylolisthesis - Spinal disorder in which (vertebra) slips forward onto the bone below it

Postural Deviations

  • Hyperkyphotic

  • Scheunemann Disease - Irregular formed vertebrae and disks, genetic condition


Joint Disorders

  • Baker Cysts - Fluid filled cyst behind the knee- also called Popliteal Cyst

  • Gout - High concentration of uric acid in the blood that precipitates out into the interstitial and synovial spaces, especially in smaller bones of the feet, form of sharp, needlelike crystals - also called Acute Gouty Arthritis

  • Joint Replacement Surgery

  • Lyme Disease

  • Osteochondritis - Cartilage or bone in the joints become inflamed

  • Patellofemoral Syndrome

  • Spondylosis - Osteoarthritis of the spine that can affect the cervical, lumbar or thoracic vertebrae, degeneration of the intervertebral disks and formation of bony growths on the vertebra

  • Sprains - Injury to the joint that results in the stretching or tearing of the ligaments but not severe enough to cause dislocation


  • Congenital Spondylolisthesis

  • Isthmic Spondylolisthesis

  • Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

  • Traumatic Spondylolisthesis

Joint Disruptions

  • Dislocations - Displacement of a bone from a joint - also called Luxation

  • Subluxations - Partial dislocation - also called Joint Separation

  • Dysplasia

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